The following publications cover a variety of topics pertaining to molluscan shellfish aquaculture. The majority of the publications are extension fact sheets from the University of Florida (UF), USDA Southern Regional Aquaculture Center (SRAC) (of which UF is a part), and USDA Northern Regional Aquaculture Center (NRAC). Pertinent technical papers are also provided from Florida Sea Grant (FSG), Georgia Sea Grant (GSG), South Carolina Sea Grant (SCSG), and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) as well as technical bulletins from the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (DACS) Division of Aquaculture.
All University of Florida extension publications–covering a wide variety of topics including profitable and sustainable agriculture, environment and natural resources, 4-H and other youth programs, Florida-friendly landscapes, communities that are vibrant and prosperous, and economic well-being and life quality for individuals and families–can be found at the University’s Electronic Data Information Source (EDIS).
Publications are in an Adobe Acrobat PDF file format. The free Adobe Acrobat Reader allows you to view, navigate, and print PDF files across all major computing platforms.
- Hard Clam Hatchery and Nursery Production (SRAC 4301)
- A Manual for the Culture of the Hard Clam Mercenaria spp. in South Carolina (SCSG)
- Oyster Hatchery Techniques (SRAC 4302)
- High-Density Rearing of Oyster Larvae in Flow-Through Systems (SRAC 4311)
- Hatchery Culture of Bivalves: A Practical Manual (FAO Fisheries TP 471)
- Installation and Operation of a Modular Bivalve Hatchery (FAO Fisheries TP 492)
- Eastern United States Interstate Shellfish Seed Transport Workshop Abstracts (SCSG)
- Toxicities of Agricultural Pesticides to Selected Aquatic Organisms (SRAC 4600)
- Nursery Growout Methods for Aquacultured Shellfish (NRAC 00-002)
- Supplemental Feeding of Clam Seed in Land-based Nurseries (UF unpublished)
- Enhancing Seed Availability for the Hard Clam Aquaculture Industry by Applying Remote Setting Techniques (FSG TP-125)
- A Floating Upweller System for Hard Clam Nursery (unpublished)
- Construction and Operations Manual for a Tidal-Powered Upwelling Nursery System (SCSG Order Info)
- Producing Oyster Seed by Remote Setting (NRAC 220)
- Phytoplankton Culture for Aquaculture Feed (SRAC 5004)
- Growing Microalgae to Feed Bivalve Larvae (NRAC 160)
- Plankton Culture Manual (Florida Aqua Farms Inc. Order Info)
- Advances in Shellfish Hatchery Technology (Workshop presentation by Dr. John Supan, LSU, August 2017)
- Biology and Culture of the Hard Clam (SRAC 433)
- Major Predators of Cultured Shellfish (NRAC 180)
- Control of Predators on Cultured Shellfish: Exclusion Strategies (NRAC 00-007)
- Shellfish Nets and Net Coatings (DACS TB-5)
- Culture of Mercenaria mercenaria: Effects of Density, Predator Exclusion Devices, and Bag Inversion (Journal of Shellfish Research 18(1):77-83)
- Effects of Mesh Size and Quahog Stocking Density on Growth and Survival of Mercenaria mercenaria Seed Cultured under Bottomless Cage Enclosures in Coastal Georgia (GSG Bulletin 19)
- Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Wild and Aquacultured Stocks of Mercenaria mercenaria in Florida (Journal of Shellfish Research 34(2):355-365)
- Optimum Seed Planting Size and Mesh Size of Bottomless Mesh Enclosures for Culturing Northern Quahog in Coastal Georgia (GSG Bulletin 25)
- Cultured Hard Clam Handling and Harvesting (DACS TB-4)
- One Shining Moment Known as Clamelot: The Cedar Key Story (Journal of Shellfish Research 19(1):477-480)
- Consumer Information on Hard Clams (SRAC 7306)
- Preparing and Canning: Clams (UF Fact Sheet FCS-8213)
- The Cultivation of the American Oyster (SRAC 432)
- Off-Bottom Culture of Oysters in the Gulf of Mexico (SRAC 4308)
- Extensive Culture of Crassostrea virginica in the Gulf of Mexico Region (SRAC 4300)
- Non-Commercial Oyster Culture or Oyster Gardening (SRAC 4307)
- Aquacultured Oyster Products (SRAC 434)
- Candidate Species for Florida Aquaculture: Evaluating an Aquatic Organism’s Aquaculture Potential (UF Fact Sheet FA-146)
- The Potential of Blood Ark and Ponderous Ark Aquaculture in Florida (FSG TP-169)
- Marketing Opportunities for Blood Ark Clams and Ponderous Ark Clams (UF Fact Sheet FE-478)
- Nutritional Composition and Marketable Shell-Life of Blood Ark Clams and Ponderous Ark Clams (UF Fact Sheet FA-568)
- Aquaculture and Marketing of the Florida Bay Scallop in Crystal River, Florida (FSG TP-106)
- Commercial Farm Production of the Southern Bay Scallop (DACS Report 2009)
- The Role of Water Temperature in Hard Clam Aquaculture (UF Fact Sheet FA-151)
- The Role of Salinity in Hard Clam Aquaculture (UF Circular 1500)
- The Role of Dissolved Oxygen in Hard Clam Aquaculture (UF Fact Sheet FA-152)
- National Recommended Water Quality Standards (US EPA Office of Water)
- Aquaculture and Aquatic Preserves (DACS TB-6)
- Environmental Effects of Shellfish Aquaculture in the Northeast (NRAC 05-2008)
- Introduction to Infectious Diseases in Hard Clams (UF Fact Sheet FA-125)
- Perkinsus Infections of Bivalve Molluscs (UF Fact Sheet FA-178)
- The Effect of UV Irradiation on Perkinsus marinus and its Potential Use to Reduce Transmission via Shellfish Effluents (NRAC 00-008)
Economics and Business Management
- Tracking the Economic Benefits by the Hard Clam Aquaculture Industry in Florida (UF Fact Sheet FE-961)
- Economic Impact of the Florida Cultured Hard Clam Industry (FSG SGR-123)
- Estimating the Economic Impact for the Commercial Hard Clam Culture Industry on the Economy of Florida (DACS Report 2009)
- Organizational Structures and Strategies for the Hard Clam Aquaculture Industry in Florida (FSG TP-141) (NRAC 107-2008)
- Aquaculture Risk Management (NRAC 107-2008)
- Cultured Hard Clam Handling and Harvesting (DACS TB-4)
- Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference (DACS TB-3)
- Red Tide Regulations (DACS TB-1)
- HACCP Guide for the Aquaculture Industry (NRAC 00-005)
To order publications, email the publication number and title to firstname.lastname@example.org. Be sure to include your mailing address and phone number.
To view Florida Sea Grant publications on seafood, healthy oceans, fisheries, and other coastal topics, visit their website.
Otwell, S.; L. Garrido and L. Sturmer
A sensory characterization program has been developed for cultured hard clams Mercenaria mercenaria, southern quahogs M. campechiensis, and their hybrids using established protocol with screened and trained panelists. This sensory program can be used by investigators assessing product quality and shelf life, or commercial interests trying to distinguish products by location, season, or process. Popular use could lead to local product distinctions or appellations that stimulate and attract consumer interests.
The Potential of Blood Ark and Ponderous Ark Aquaculture in Florida: Results of spawning, larval rearing, nursery and growout trials
Sturmer, L.N.; J. M. Nunez; R. L. Creswell; and S.M. Baker
This document presents research on two alternative species, the blood ark (Anadara ovalis) and the ponderous ark (Noetia ponderosa). The information presented is not a hatchery or growout manual, but is provided as a reference for shellfish hatchery operators and growers, resource managers, and others who may be considering the culture of blood or ponderous arks as alternative or additional species.
Ruth, A., L. Sturmer and C. Adams
This study provides guidance on statewide organization for the commercial hard clam culture industry in Florida. The study characterizes the structure of and identifies strategies for successful agricultural and aquacultural organizations designed to provide the resources needed to solve current and projected industry problems.
Enhancing Seed Availability for the Hard Clam (Mercenaria mercenaria) Aquaculture Industry by Applying Remote Setting Techniques
Sturmer, L.; C. Adams and J. Supan
Hard clam aquaculture has developed rapidly in Florida as well as in other states in the southeast. Remote setting of hard clam seed would allow growers to become less dependent upon traditional seed sources, potentially reduce the cost of seed, and help ensure a greater chance of success by gaining control of and incorporating another step into their existing business. The goal of this study was to test a technology that may help ensure a reliable and consistent supply of high quality and inexpensive clam seed to growers.
CLAM – Computer Logbook and Management: A user’s guide for commercial hard clam growers, beta version
Sturmer, L.; M. Zylstra and C. Adams
The CLAM software package assists commercial hard clam growers in managing the information concerning their nursery and growout operations. CLAM allows growers to better track their clam inventory, map lease sites and keep track of where clams are located within each lease. CLAM also provide growers a means to keep track of costs and earnings over the course of a production cycle.
Philippakos, Effie; C. Adams; A. Hodges; D. Mulkey; D. Comer; L. Sturmer
Aquaculture products are an important sector of the Florida economy, with $86 million in farm-gate sales in 1999. Cultured hard clams (Mercenaria mercenaria) were the second-largest component of these sales. This document reports the economic impact of the clam industry on the region and state. Data for this report was collected via a survey of Florida certified shellfish wholesalers that handle Florida cultured hard clams.
Blake, N.; Adams, C.; Degner, R. and Sweat, D.
The Florida Marine Fisheries Commission banned the commercial harvest of the American bay scallop (Argopecten irradians) from wild stocks in Florida and no previous attempts have been made to examine the aquaculture potential of the species in Florida. The goal of this study was to develop a new fishery resource product through open-water aquaculture for the west coast of Florida that would compete as a non-traditional product through market development.